Media Coverage

Animals: Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Injectable Lidocaine and Lidocaine-Impregnated Latex Band for Castration and Tail Docking in Lambs

January 13, 2024

Animals Assessment Injectable Lidocaine LLBs

In a groundbreaking study detailed in an article titled “Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Injectable Lidocaine and Lidocaine-Impregnated Latex Band for Castration and Tail Docking in Lambs”. Nick Allan, StarFish Bio Services Manager, and a team of researchers explored new avenues for alleviating pain and discomfort in lambs during common husbandry practices such as castration and tail docking. Delving into the effectiveness of current pain management practices the article introduces an exciting new alternative that could revolutionize the industry.

Tail docking and castration are routine procedures in the livestock industry, known to cause distress to animals. While injectable lidocaine has been a staple for short-term anesthesia (lasting 120 to 180 minutes), the study suggests the need for additional strategies to address long-term pain. The research team explored the potential of Lidocaine-Loaded Bands (LLBs) to provide extended pain relief and demonstrated promising results.

The study, conducted through four comprehensive trials examined the following:
In Vitro Release: Investigating the release of lidocaine from LLBs in controlled conditions.
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Assessing the effectiveness of injectable lidocaine in scrotal and tail tissues.
In Vivo Delivery: Studying the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LLBs placed on the tail and scrotum of lambs.
Proof-of-Concept: Comparing the sensation of control- versus LLB-banded tail tissue over time.

Results from the trials indicate that the use of LLBs could potentially offer local anesthesia for at least 3 days, surpassing the duration provided by a control band. Moreover, tissue lidocaine concentrations from LLBs met or exceeded the EC50 for an impressive 21–28 days, highlighting the potential for sustained pain relief.

“This study marks a significant step forward in our understanding of pain management in livestock,” said Allan, the principal investigator. “The Lidocaine-Loaded Bands present a promising alternative to injectable lidocaine, offering the potential for extended relief without compromising the well-being of the animals.”

The findings suggest that further studies are necessary to compare the use of injectable lidocaine to the innovative Lidocaine-Loaded Bands. If successful, the LLBs could reshape industry standards, promoting more humane and effective practices in livestock management.

For more information about the study or to request interviews with the researchers, please contact:
Patrick Dean, Director Marketing, StarFish Medical, [email protected]

About Animals

Animals is an international and interdisciplinary scholarly open access journal. It publishes original research articles, reviews and communications that offer substantial new insight into any field of study that involves animals, including zoology, ethnozoology, animal science, animal ethics and animal welfare.

Editorial Staff

Prof. Dr. Clive J. C. Phillips
[email protected]


About StarFish Medical

StarFish Medical provides award-winning design, development, commercialization, and flexible manufacturing outsourcing services —100% dedicated to the medical device and life science marketplace. StarFish Medical partners with innovative companies to create and manufacture breakthrough products for a full range of medical specialty areas including: Digital Health, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Urology, Gastroenterology, Otology, Ophthalmology, and In-Vitro Diagnostics.

StarFish Medical’s technical expertise includes electronics, mechanical, software/firmware systems engineering, in addition to industrial design and human factors. Regulatory Affairs (RA) and Quality Assurance (QA) consultants at StarFish Medical provide regulatory assistance for FDA, CE Mark and Health Canada submissions. Services include QA support for setting up QMS for start-up companies with implementation at the client’s site, and assisting with ISO 13485 certification audits.

For media inquiries:

Patrick Dean, Director Marketing, StarFish Medical, [email protected]

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